The structures which compose the chest cage —i.e., skin, fat, bones, and muscles—may be affected with the same diseases which can occur to such tissues anywhere else in the body. For example, infections or tumors may involve

Endocrine Glands

A gland is a group of cells organized together with the ability of extracting certain materials from the blood and lymph, and concentrating the materials or manufacturing from them a specific chemical compound. Glands are mainly of

Surgical diseases of the heart

CARDIAC SURGICAL EMERGEN­CIES Injuries of the heart fortunately are not com­mon. The heart is protected on all sides by the sturdy rib cage which affords protection from most blunt injuries to the chest. Penetrating wounds, such as


Infections Infections of any portion of the pulmonary system may occur. Infections of the lower por­tions usually follow an upper respiratory infec­tion. In many instances more than one portion of the system is simultaneously infected. In­flammation of

The patient encounter method

Surgical internship demands efficiency and neurotic attention to detail, 2 often opposing modi operandi. As the workhorse of the inpatient surgical team, you will need to perfect both. Toward this goal, we recommend you do the following:

Family planning in residency

Most residents begin their training in their mid-twenties and finish in the early to mid-thirties, which is the traditional time to start a family. Therefore, many residents will face the decision regarding how to best time this.

Tips for Managing Your Personal Life While in Residency

1. Prioritize your loved ones. Those who support us have to sacrifice a lot on our behalf. We are absent from our parents’ houses at many holidays, and, when we are there, we are likely napping. Our

Doctor, take care of your health!

Let me be honest: I struggle with this issue – I didn’t see a dentist for the first 3 years of residency, which is frankly disgusting. The standard advice is to exercise, eat healthy, and sleep as

Surgery is a team sport

Surgery is a team sport. Yet as a new surgical intern, you may feel that you are not a crucial part of the team. Even if you are incredibly smart, you are unlikely to be making critical


It is the rare intern who is intuitively efficient. For most of us it involves reflection and practice. The most important thing you can do to be more efficient is to be constantly analyzing your behavior, looking