Thoracic surgery Archive
The structures which compose the chest cage —i.e., skin, fat, bones, and muscles—may be affected with the same diseases which can occur to such tissues anywhere else in the body. For example, infections or tumors may involve
Infections Infections of any portion of the pulmonary system may occur. Infections of the lower portions usually follow an upper respiratory infection. In many instances more than one portion of the system is simultaneously infected. Inflammation of
Bronchiectasis strictly defined is abnormal dilation of the bronchi, but common usage expands the definition to denote the syndrome marked by dilation of bronchi, a paroxysmal cough that produces variable amounts of fetid, mucopurulent sputum, recurrent pulmonary
A lung abscess is a collection of pus that is contained within a cavity formed by the the surrounding tissues.
Congenital lung anomalies include primarily tracheobronchial atresia, bronchogenic cysts, pulmonary dysplasia, pulmonary sequestration, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations, and congenital lobar emphysema.
Mediastinitis may be acute or chronic. There are four sources of mediastinal infection: direct contamination, hematogenous or lymphatic spread, extension of infection from the neck or retroperitoneum, and extension from the lung or pleura. The most common
Chronic mediastinitis usually involves specific granulomatous processes with associated mediastinal fibrosis, chronic abscesses.
Empyemas are divided into three phases based on their natural history: acute exudative, fibrinopurulent, and chronic organizing. The acute exudative phase is characterized by the outpouring of pleural fluid (incited by pleural inflammation), which has a low
Main causes of hydrothorax are cancer, cardiovascular diseases, renal diseases, acute pancreatitis, hepatic cirrhosis and thromboembolism.
Basic methods of diagnosis of diseases of the chest are skin tests, endoscopy, mediastinotomy, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, biopsy, CT, MRI, PET, sputum analysis.