Septic arthritis is a joint inflammation due to an infection usually involving synovial joints. Many agents may cause septic arthritis in children, but the vast majority are due to various strains of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus and Kingella
Osteomyelitis in the preantibiotic era often caused death or severe disability. Currently, osteomyelitis remains a relatively common problem but with a much better prognosis.
The child’s medical history is important in the assessment of any previous injury or medical problem in the course of the current musculoskeletal infection. The duration of symptoms in septic arthritis is of prognostic significance. Infections that
An understanding of the pathogenesis of musculoskeletal infections facilitates management.
Foot and ankle problems are common in nearly all sports. Most problems are generic and occur during play or athletic participation. Sports add intensity to normal activity and may bring out problems that might otherwise remain unnoticed.
The distal femoral epiphysis may fail before the medial collateral ligament. This differentiation between the physeal fracture and ligament tear can usually be made by physical examination. Avoid stress radiographs, as the study may further damage the
Some generalizations can be made about femoral shaft fractures in children. The femur heals spontaneously even with widely displaced fragments. Nonunion is rare. The healing rate is age dependent, and the relationship between time of union and
Flexible IM fixation of femoral fractures is the best fixation for most fractures in ages 6 to the end of growth. Contraindications include comminution and unstable fracture patterns, or unacceptable anesthetic risk.
Fractures of the upper femur (proximal femoral fractures) are serious injuries with many complications. They are classified by the Delbet–Colonna system.
Pelvic Fractures in children are often associated with serious injuries. Pelvic Ring Fractures Tile classification This classification is used for both child and adult fractures. Class A These fractures are inherently stable. They may include avulsion injuries;