Monthly Archive:: January 2019

Controlled cell death

Controlled cell death is an important molding process in the embryonic heart. Ebstein malformation and muscular ventricular septal defect have been postulated to arise from abnormalities in cell death. The tricuspid valve cusps are almost exclusively derived

Congenital cardiovascular malformations

In 1966, Smith proposed that the term dysmorphology be used to denote the study of abnormalities in morphogenesis, regardless of etiology, timing of origin, or severity. The field has expanded dramatically over the last several decades, as great


The term amputation in medical language means the removal of a part or the whole of an extremity. Such may be necessary in many con­ditions.

What Is Throat?

The pharynx, or throat, is a continuation backward and downward of the nasal and oral cavities. It serves as a food and air passageway. At the upper portion behind the soft palate lies the adenoid. At the


The structures which compose the chest cage —i.e., skin, fat, bones, and muscles—may be affected with the same diseases which can occur to such tissues anywhere else in the body. For example, infections or tumors may involve

Endocrine Glands

A gland is a group of cells organized together with the ability of extracting certain materials from the blood and lymph, and concentrating the materials or manufacturing from them a specific chemical compound. Glands are mainly of

Surgical diseases of the heart

CARDIAC SURGICAL EMERGEN­CIES Injuries of the heart fortunately are not com­mon. The heart is protected on all sides by the sturdy rib cage which affords protection from most blunt injuries to the chest. Penetrating wounds, such as


Infections Infections of any portion of the pulmonary system may occur. Infections of the lower por­tions usually follow an upper respiratory infec­tion. In many instances more than one portion of the system is simultaneously infected. In­flammation of