Monthly Archive:: February 2015

About complicated ulcers

The comments by many surgeons are an important reminder, at the time when the bacterial (helicobacter) etiology of ulcers is (over) emphasized, that ulcers are the result of mulifaceted etiology, especially the socio-economic one.

Examination of the scrotum, external genitalia

In surgical practice examination of theexternal genitalia is usually confined to examination of the male genitalia, since females with disorders of this region are managed by gynaecologists. The examination is best performed with the sick man in

Examination of the abdomen

An abdominal examination consists of several parts: examination of the abdomen, of the inguinal region, examination of the scrotum, testes, and rectal examination.

Examination of the breasts

The common breast complaints in females are discovery of a lump (benign or malignant), pain (mastalgia) and nipple discharge. In males, the most common ailment is unilateral or bilateral hypertrophy (gynaecomastia), which may be idiopathic (postpubertal), drug

Examination of the neck and head

Examination of the neck and head begins with inspection.

Causes of cervical lymphadenopathy

Main causes of cervical lymphadenopathy are an infection or neoplastic infiltration. The latter may consist of secondary deposits from a primary tumour elsewhere in the body or be primary in nature, i.e. lymphoma.

Examination of a swelling

A swelling may be visible on inspection or not be detected until palpation is carried out. The lump may be discrete and localized or be diffuse, when it is more properly desig­nated a swelling. The important features

Rectal Carcinoma

A fit 55 yr old man was referred from a gastroenterologist after colonoscopic resection of a large partly pedunculated rectal villous adenoma. Histology shows a well differentiated adenocarcinoma in the polyp, extending to within 2mm of the

Young women with breast cancer

3 years ago I saw a 29 year old with a 2 cm. mass in her left breast. This subsequently was found to be a medullary carcinoma. She was treated with a lumpectomy and axillary dissection. 26

Recurrent malignant pheocromocitoma

I would like to ask you a suggestion on the most appropriate treatment for a young man with a recurrent malignant paraganglioma. Clinical summary: 29 years old man with negative past medical history.