Inflammations of the nervous system Inflammation may involve the nerve system in any region. It may be caused by infections, chemicals, or toxins, or from unknown causes.
Injuries to the nervous system may involve any part to any extent. It is of great import that destroyed tissue of the brain and spinal cord will not regenerate; peripheral nerves will. In many cases of accident
Operations on the nervous system, as well as most others, treats diseases caused by inflammation, tumors, injuries, congenital defects, and some of unknown cause. For simplicity in presentation, the various operative procedures employed in the treatment of
Spine injuries are uncommon in children, accounting about 2–3% of spinal trauma cases. Trauma may result from falls, auto accidents, sporting activities, and nonaccidental injury.
If the cervical intervertebral disk ruptures, adjacent neural structures may be compressed. Compression of a spinal root may cause weakness and sensory loss in structures of the upper extremity innervated by that root. The severity of the
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) occur within the central nervous system as congenital anomalies that allow blood to be shunted directly from arteries to veins without an interposed capillary network. Afferent and efferent vessels are dilated, and they lead
An aneurysm is a saccular dilation of an artery that typically occurs at a branch point or curve in the artery’s course and generally points in the direction of blood flow. Usual aneurysm morphology consists of a
Congenital malformations occur frequently in the nervous system and are exceeded only by prematurity as a cause of death in infants. In most cases, no specific cause can be demonstrated, although a number of teratogenic factors are
Endocrine-active adenomas result in characteristic syndromes caused by hypersecretion or dysregulated secretion of a hormone by the pituitary tumors. Endocrine-inactive adenomas and large endocrine-active adenomas can present with symptoms associated with anterior pituitary gland compression, resulting in
Peripheral nerve tumors may be removable or diffusely invasive. The most common of the former type is the nerve sheath tumor, variously called perineurial fibroblastoma, neurilemmoma, or schwannoma. These tumors may displace a major portion of the